The collection and use of solar radiation at a house-by-house scale can greatly reduce reliance on off-site energy sources. Absorbing heat from the sun can be as simple as orienting the windows of buildings to the south. Overhangs, awnings, or trellises prevent the high summer sun from overheating the house, while the low winter sun can penetrate and warm the home. Double-paned windows and insulation prevent heat loss. Ground-source heat pumps are more cost-effective than conventional heating systems, and district-wide heating systems are more efficient still. A composting toilet combined with greywater filtration can completely eliminate a home’s contribution to off-site liquid waste. Simple blackwater package systems are now available to treat waste to about 20 homes. Treated correctly, clean discharges from black and greywater systems provide an excellent and safe source for irrigation water and for slow release into infiltration storm systems, thus using summer base flows in nearby streams.